This is the Protected Area with the largest extension in Bolivia and is located to the South of Santa Cruz, in the Cordillera and Chiquitos provinces. The municipalities involved are Charagua, San Jose de Chiquitos y Pailon. The surface of the park is 3.441.115 hectareas (34,411 km2).
The National Park Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco is the only Area designated to protect the remainder of the once extensive South American Chaco. It includes unique ecosystems of the Chaco as the Xerofitico Dry Forest. The climate is hot, characteristic of the semiarid and dry regions with variable precipitations from 1,000 mm ak Northeastern to less than 400 mm in the Southwest. The altitude of the Area varies between the 200 and 400 meters. It occupies an extensive part of the Chaquena or Gran Chaco region. The hydrography is defined by the Parapet river border. The park counts approximately with 880 species of vascular plants, distributed in 111 families and 28 cryptogam species.
At the park 24 species of mammals were registered, from which six are on the CITES lists: the eyeglasses bear, puma, Andean cat or pajonal o titi, monte k' uchi or savage pig and the urina. There are 112 registered species of birds belonging to 30 families. They emphasize the condor, wild turkey, Ipicua and the woodpeckers (5 species) and eight species of parrots. Besides, six species of amphibians, five of lizards and seven of snakes were identified. There are 42 species of butterflies registered. The settlements inside the Area are dispersed. The communities have a reduced population formed by Quechua that inhabit the valleys.